Ultranacionalizam

Izvor: Wikipedija
Prijeđi na navigaciju Prijeđi na pretraživanje

Ultranacionalizam je »ekstremni nacionalizam koji promiče interes jedne države ili naroda iznad svih ostalih« ili jednostavno »ekstremna odanost vlastitoj naciji«.[1][2]

Uvod[uredi | uredi kôd]

Prema Januszu Bugajskom, »u svojim najekstremnijim ili najrazvijenijim oblicima, ultranacionalizam nalikuje fašizmu, obilježen ksenofobičnim prezirom prema drugim nacijama, podrškom autoritarnim političkim aranžmanima na granici totalitarizma i mitskim naglaskom na organsko jedinstvo između karizmatičnog vođe, organizacijski amorfne stranke pokreta i nacije«.[3] Roger Griffin tvrdi da je ultranacionalizam u biti ksenofobičan i da je poznato kako se legitimira »kroz duboko mitizirane pripovijesti o prošlim kulturnim ili političkim razdobljima povijesne veličine ili o starim računima kako bi se obračunao s navodnim neprijateljima«. Također se može osloniti na »vulgarizirane oblike fizičke antropologije, genetike i eugenike kako bi se racionalizirale ideje nacionalne superiornosti i sudbine, degeneracije i subhumanosti«.[4]

U kombinaciji s pojmom nacionalnog preporoda, ultranacionalizam je ključni temelj fašizma.[5]

Ultranacionalističke političke stranke[uredi | uredi kôd]

Trenutno zastupljene u nacionalnim zakonodavnim tijelima[uredi | uredi kôd]

Sljedeće političke stranke okarakterizirane su kao ultranacionalističke.

Stranke koje su nekada imale ultranacionalističke tendencije ili frakcije[uredi | uredi kôd]

Sljedeće političke stranke povijesno su imale ultranacionalističke tendencije ili frakcije.

Stranke koje su nekada bile zastupljene u nacionalnim zakonodavnim tijelima[uredi | uredi kôd]

Ultranacionalističke političke organizacije[uredi | uredi kôd]

Vidi još[uredi | uredi kôd]

Izvori[uredi | uredi kôd]

  1. UltranationalismInačica izvorne stranice arhivirana 12. svibnja 2019.. Oxford English Dictionary. pristupljeno 29. lipnja 2017.
  2. Ultranationalism. Collins English Dictionary. pristupljeno 29. lipnja 2017.
  3. The Politics of National Minority Participation in Post-communist Europe. EastWest Institute. p.65. Section author - Janusz Bugajski. Book edited by Johnathan P.Stein. Published by M.E. Sharpe. Published in New York in 2000. pristupljeno preko Google Books.
  4. Blamires, Cyprian. 2006. World fascism: a historical encyclopedia. str. 452. ISBN 9781576079409
  5. Roger Griffin, "Nationalism" in Cyprian Blamires, ed., World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia, vol. 2 (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2006), pp. 451–53.
  6. Ultra-nationalist's car-crash immigration interview. Noosa News. 9. kolovoza 2013. Pristupljeno 17. rujna 2020.. Stephanie Banister, who is hoping to represent the ultra-nationalist One Nation party
  7. Cyprus and the roadmap for peace - A critical interrogation of the conflict. P. 87. Edited by Michalis S. Michael and Yucel Vural. Chapter authors - Yucel Vural, Sertac Sonan, and Michalis S. Michael. Published by Edward Elgar Publishing in Cheltenham, UK. Published in 2018.
  8. In Liberal Estonia, Right-Wing Populists Are Making Their Mark. Freedom House (engleski). Pristupljeno 10. rujna 2021.
  9. "The East-Europeanization of Estonian Politics" | Baltic Rim Economies. sites.utu.fi. Pristupljeno 10. rujna 2021.
  10. Europe's far right has stalled. Australian Financial Review (engleski). 31. prosinca 2019. Pristupljeno 10. rujna 2021.
  11. Erlanger, Steven; de Freytas-Tamura, Kimiko. 17. prosinca 2016. E.U. Faces Its Next Big Test as France's Election Looms. New York Times. Pristupljeno 28. veljače 2017.
  12. The 1619 Project and the far-right fear of history. The Washington Post. 20. kolovoza 2019. A leader of Germany's ultranationalist AfD party in 2017 bemoaned how the country's focus on atoning ...
  13. Berlin, Oliver Moody. 23. srpnja 2019. Frankenstein pact puts AfD in coalition. The Times. A married couple have run into trouble for forging the first local pact between Angela Merkel’s party and the ultranationalist Alternative for Germany (AfD) in defiance of the chancellor.
  14. Greek elections: landslide victory for centre-right New Democracy party. The Guardian. 7. srpnja 2019. Smaller parties, such as the ultra-nationalist Greek Solution and leftist MeRA25, headed by Yanis Varoufakis, the former finance minister, were targeting younger Greeks.
  15. Mark Magnier. 8. ožujka 2012. In India, battle continues over Hindu temple's riches - latimes. Los Angeles Times. Pristupljeno 2. prosinca 2015.
  16. Election Polls: 6-14 Seats for Bennett and Shaked's New Right-wing Party, Labor Party Crashes. Haaretz. 30. prosinca 2018.
  17. Otzma Yehudit candidate: Critics have to go back 30 years in order to attack us. The Times of Israel. 24. veljače 2019.
  18. Israel Swears In New Government, Ending Netanyahu's Rule
  19. What's Fueling the Shocking Rise of Italy's Far Right?, Haaretz
  20. Beautiful Harmony: Political Project Behind Japan's New Era Name – Analysis. eurasia review. 16. srpnja 2019. The shifting dynamics around the new era name (gengō 元号) offers an opportunity to understand how the domestic politics of the LDP’s project of ultranationalism is shaping a new Japan and a new form of nationalism.
  21. Abe's cabinet reshuffle. East Asia Forum. 14. rujna 2019. Abe also rewarded right-wing politicians who are close to him — so-called ‘ideological friends’ who are being increasingly pushed to the forefront of his administration — such as LDP Executive Acting Secretary-General Koichi Hagiuda who was appointed Education Minister. As a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi (Japan Conference), which seeks to promote patriotic education, he can be considered ‘reliable’ as the government’s policy leader on national education.
  22. Mark Poysden, Marco Bratt, ur. 2006. Global Studies: Japan and the Pacific Rim. KIT Publishers. str. 97. ... Koizumi calls the war criminals 'martyrs', a view shared by many elderly veterans, Right-wing Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) lawmakers and ultra-nationalist groups . He now claims that he visits the shrine as a private citizen, not as the prime minister. It is an open secret in Japan that most LDP politicians are linked to ...
  23. Frenchy Lunning, ur. 2013. Mechademia 4: War/Time. U of Minnesota Press. str. 291. ISBN 9781452942650. The overturning of the cab driver's 1998 sentiment in Akamatsu's 2007 piece had its political correlative in the victory of the ultranationalist wing of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) when Abe Shinzō became Japan's prime minister in ...
  24. Polish Interior Minister Issues Last-Minute Ban on Neo-Fascist Show of Force Outside Israeli Embassy in Warsaw. The Algemeiner. 31. siječnja 2018.
  25. Suh, Dae-sook. 1988. Kim Il Sung: The North Korean Leader 1st izdanje. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231065733
  26. Hopkins, Valerie. 14. prosinca 2020. Far-right party changes political landscape in Romania. Financial Times
  27. Record low turnout brings extremist party into Romania's Parliament. transylvanianow.com. Transylvania Now. 7. prosinca 2020.
  28. Ultranationalists Move to Slap Fines on Use of Foreign Words. 21. veljače 2013.
  29. Van Herpen, Marcel H. 2015. Putin's Propaganda Machine: Soft Power and Russian Foreign Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. str. 34
  30. The Turn of the FascistInačica izvorne stranice arhivirana 12. travnja 2015., Jane Duncan, SACSIS (2011).
  31. Imraan Baccus,"Is fascism rearing its ugly head in SA?"Inačica izvorne stranice arhivirana 6. listopada 2013., City Press (2013).
  32. Not Even a Prosperous Slovakia Is Immune to Doubts About the E.U. New York Times. 17. prosinca 2016.
  33. Acha, Beatriz. 6. siječnja 2019. No, no es un partido (neo)fascista. Agenda Pública
  34. Antón-Mellón, Joan. 29. travnja 2019. Vox. Del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal. Agenda Pública
  35. Estrin, Barbara L. 2012. Shakespeare and Contemporary Fiction: Theorizing Foundling and Lyric Plots. str. 17. ISBN 978-1611493702
  36. Arman, Murat Necip. 2007. The Sources Of Banality In Transforming Turkish Nationalism. CEU Political Science Journal (2): 133–151
  37. Eissenstat, Howard. (studenoga 2002). "Anatolianism: The History of a Failed Metaphor of Turkish Nationalism". Middle East Studies Association Conference. Washington, D.C. 
  38. Göçek, Fatma Müge. 2015. Denial of Violence: Ottoman Past, Turkish Present and Collective Violence Against the Armenians, 1789-2009 (engleski). Oxford University Press. str. 402. ISBN 978-0-19-933420-9
  39. Svoboda: The rise of Ukraine's ultra-nationalists. BBC. 25. prosinca 2012. Pristupljeno 1. ožujka 2015.
  40. Reuters. 21. srpnja 1997. Bosnia Serbs Oust Leader From Her Party. The New York Times (engleski). ISSN 0362-4331. Pristupljeno 19. lipnja 2021.
  41. Holbooke to seek removal of Bosnian Serb leader. The Irish Times (engleski). Pristupljeno 19. lipnja 2021.
  42. a b c Davies, Peter; Lynch, Derek. 2002. The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-13460-952-9
  43. Kyriazi, Anna. Travanj 2016. Ultranationalist discourses of exclusion: a comparison between the Hungarian Jobbik and the Greek Golden Dawn. University of Milan
  44. Migrants finding little sympathy in Hungary for their plight. AP News. 9. rujna 2015.
  45. Ultra-Nationalist Party Surges In Hungary. NPR.org. National Public Radio. 24. svibnja 2014.
  46. Piacentini A., Make Macedonia Great Again! The New Face of Skopje and the Macedonians’ identity dilemma edited by Evinç Doğan in Reinventing Eastern Europe: Imaginaries, Identities and Transformations; Place and space series; Transnational Press London, 2019; ISBN 1910781878, p. 87.
  47. Katsikas, Stefanos. 2011. Negotiating Diplomacy in the New Europe: Foreign Policy in Post-Communist Bulgaria. I.B. Tauris: 64 journal zahtijeva |journal= (pomoć)
  48. a b Ultra-nationalists, populists form 'Bulgarian Patriots' alliance for July elections. The Sofia Globe. 20. svibnja 2021. Pristupljeno 17. listopada 2021.. Ultra-nationalist parties VMRO and the National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria, along with populists Volya, have agreed to stand together in Bulgaria’s July 11 2021 parliamentary elections under the name “Bulgarian Patriots”, the parties announced on May 20.
  49. Vacuum at the top threatens to hinder Bulgaria's progress. Financial Times (FT). Pristupljeno 17. lipnja 2021.
  50. Khmer People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP). globalsecurity.org. Pristupljeno 28. svibnja 2020.
  51. Tsatsanis, Emmanouil. 2011. Hellenism under siege: the national-populist logic of antiglobalization rhetoric in Greece, Journal of Political Ideologies, 16 (1): 11–31, doi:10.1080/13569317.2011.540939, ...and far right-wing newspapers such as Alpha Ena, Eleytheros Kosmos, Eleytheri Ora and Stohos (the mouthpiece of ultra-nationalist group Chrysi Avgi).
  52. Ivarsflaten, Elisabeth. 2006. Reputational Shields: Why Most Anti-Immigrant Parties Failed in Western Europe, 1980–2005 (PDF), Nuffield College, University of Oxford, str. 15
  53. On the Road with Golden Dawn, Greece’s Ultra-Nationalist Party. Time. objavljeno 31. listopada 2012. pristupljeno 11. ožujka 2017.
  54. James R. Brandon, ur. 2009. Kabuki's Forgotten War: 1931-1945. University of Hawaii Press. str. 113. ISBN 9780824832001. .2 All existing political parties “voluntarily” dissolved themselves, replaced by a single authorized political body, the ultranationalist Imperial Rule Assistance Association.
  55. Khin Moh Moh Lwin and Myo Set Pai. 20. studenoga 2020. Far-right Buddhist nationalist candidates among biggest losers in 2020 election. Myanmar Now. Pristupljeno 23. studenoga 2020.
  56. Internal Crisis Group. 5. rujna 2017. Buddhism and State Power in Myanmar journal zahtijeva |journal= (pomoć)
  57. Ford, Peter. 2018. Serbian Radical Party surge may complicate reform. Christian Science Monitor. Pristupljeno 17. prosinca 2018.
  58. Warlord's party hopeful of winning seats. edition.cnn.com. CNN. 24. prosinca 2020.
  59. Željko Ražnatović. britannica.com. Britannica
  60. Wiesinger, Barbara. Prosinac 2008. The Continuing Presence of the Extreme Right in Post-Milošević Serbia. Balkanologie. 11 (1–2). doi:10.4000/balkanologie.1363
  61. Mladic on his way to UN war crimes tribunal. France 24 (engleski). 31. svibnja 2011. Pristupljeno 19. lipnja 2021.
  62. Serbia's pro-EU populists win vote, initial projections show. AP NEWS. Pristupljeno 19. lipnja 2021.
  63. Armakolas, Ioannis; Maksimović, Maja. Svibanj 2013. The Beginning of the End for the Kosovo Problem? The Agreement on Normalisation of Relations between Belgrade and Pristina and its Aftermath (PDF). ETH Zürich. Pristupljeno 19. lipnja 2021.
  64. Krabill, Ron. 2010. Starring Mandela and Cosby: Media and the End(s) of Apartheid. University of Chicago Press. str. 51
  65. 이범석 [Lee Bum Suk]. Naver Knowledge Encyclopedia (korejski). Pristupljeno 17. svibnja 2019.
  66. The Extreme Right in Spain - Surviving in the Shadow of Franco (PDF). core.ac.uk. Hedda Samdahl Weltz. 2014
  67. Ulla Fionna, ur. 2015. Watching the Indonesian Elections 2014. ISEAS Publishing. str. 106. ISBN 9789814620833. Prabowo has accepted support from and declared his willingness to work with such organizations as the (notorious) radical Islamic group Front Pembela Islam (Defenders of Islam Front) and the ultra-nationalist Pemuda Pancasila
  68. Nippon Kaigi: The ultra-nationalistic group trying to restore the might of the Japanese Empire. ABC News Online. Author - Matthew Carney. Published 2 December 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  69. Abe's cabinet reshuffle. East Asia Forum. 14. rujna 2019. Abe also rewarded right-wing politicians who are close to him — so-called ‘ideological friends’ who are being increasingly pushed to the forefront of his administration — such as LDP Executive Acting Secretary-General Koichi Hagiuda who was appointed Education Minister. As a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi (Japan Conference), which seeks to promote patriotic education, he can be considered ‘reliable’ as the government’s policy leader on national education.
  70. Japanese minister becomes first in two years to visit Tokyo's controversial Yasukuni Shrine. South China Morning Post. 17. listopada 2019. Pristupljeno 5. lipnja 2020.. Eto is serving in his first cabinet position and is a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi organisation, whose aims are to revise the “national consciousness” surrounding the prosecution of Japan’s war criminals and to change the nation’s pacifist constitution implemented after the war. The group also promotes “patriotic education”.
  71. Michal Kolmas, ur. 2019. National Identity and Japanese Revisionism. Routledge. ISBN 9781351334396. ... and foreign policy are rightwing revisionists organized in groups such as the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi ...
  72. Ugo Dessì, ur. 2013. Japanese Religions and Globalization. Routledge. str. 146. ISBN 9780415811705
  73. Japan combats rise in hate speech. Al Jazeera. 30. studenoga 2015. Pristupljeno 5. lipnja 2020.. ... and many don’t speak Korean or have ties to Korea. Even so, ultranationalist groups like Zaitokukai have singled them out and used Japan’s very liberal protection of speech to harass, intimidate and silence Zainichi with noisy street protests and attacks online, often anonymously.
  74. Head of anti-foreigner group Zaitokukai to step down. Japan Times. 30. studenoga 2015. Pristupljeno 5. lipnja 2020.. The longtime chairman of the ultranationalist group Zaitokukai has announced he will step down and even give up his membership in the group, saying the move will eventually bolster the organization’s influence.
  75. Zaman, Dina. 23. lipnja 2012. Is there a need for more interfaith dialogue in Malaysia? Part 1. newmandala.org. Pristupljeno 26. travnja 2021.. “Perkasa (an all Malay ultranationalist group) ready to crusade against ungrateful Christians,”
  76. La nueva ultraderecha latinoamericana (1992-2018) [The New Latin American Far-right (1992-2018)]. Marxismo Critico (španjolski)
  77. Flores, González; Gustavo, José. Lipanj 2015. The reasons for the sinarquista: The organization and ideology of the National Union Synarchists. Culturales (engleski). 3 (1): 49–76. ISSN 1870-1191
  78. Nilsen, Marte. 12. ožujka 2015. Buddhist nationalism threatens Myanmar's democratic transition. East Asia Forum. Pristupljeno 28. svibnja 2021.
  79. Buddhist Authorities Ban Myanmar's Ultranationalist Ma Ba Tha Group. Radio Free Asia. 23. svibnja 2017. Pristupljeno 28. svibnja 2021.
  80. Brawling Myanmar Monks Show Buddhist Nationalists Backing Coup. Bloomberg News. 10. ožujka 2021. Pristupljeno 28. svibnja 2021.
  81. Pamuk, Humeyra. U.S. Designates Russian Ultra-Nationalist Group as Terrorist Organization. US News. Pristupljeno 9. listopada 2020.
  82. Beech, Hannah. 1. srpnja 2013. When Buddhists go Bad. Time (New Zealand Edition). 182 (1): 19
  83. SCF. 9. listopada 2018. Germany seeks to ban ultranationalist Turkish Grey Wolves' symbols. Stockholm Center for Freedom (engleski). Pristupljeno 3. svibnja 2021.
  84. van Wilgenburg, Wladimir. 14. veljače 2019. Austria bans symbols of PKK, Turkish Grey Wolves, and Muslim Brotherhood. www.kurdistan24.net (engleski). Pristupljeno 3. svibnja 2021.
  85. Selcen, Aydın. 5. rujna 2020. Far-right group attempts to attack Grup Yorum member Gökçeks grave to burn his body. Duvar English. Pristupljeno 3. svibnja 2021.
  86. Alessio, Dominic; Meredith, Kristen. 2014. Blackshirts for the Twenty–First Century? Fascism and the English Defence League. Social Identities. 20 (1): 104–118. doi:10.1080/13504630.2013.843058
  87. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-26924026