|Stilski začetak:||Glam rock, shock rock, heavy metal, punk rock, gothic rock, progresivni rock, alternativni rock, elektronička glazba, pop|
|Kulturni začetak:||početkom 1980-ih, Japan|
|Glazbala:||ovisno o žanru|
|eroguro kei, oshare kei|
|japanska popularna kultura,|
japanska ulična moda
Visual Kei (japanski: ヴィジュアル系, Hepburn: Vijuaru Kei, doslovno. "Vizualni stil" ili "Vizualni sistem") je pokret među japanskim glazbenicima,kojeg karakterizira varirajuća uporaba šminke, detaljno stilizirane frizure i kitnjasti kostimi, koje ponekad prati i dvospolna estetika, slično zapadnom glam rocku.
Neki zapadni izvori smatraju visual kei glazbenim žanrom, čiji je zvuk sličan onome glam rocka, punk rocka i heavy metala. Ipak, visual kei primjenjuje se u raznim žanrovima, pa čak i onima koji nemaju prevelike veze s rock glazbom, kao što su elektronička glazba i pop glazba, itd. Drugi izvori, koji uključuju i same sudionike pokreta, smatraju da visual kei nije glazbeni žanr već sloboda izražavanja, mode i samog sudjelovanja u supkulturi.
- Visual Kei 101 – Segment 1: the GazettE. MTV (11. studenog 2011.) Arhivirano s izvorne stranice 21. travnja 2016., pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2016. “Visual-kei is a uniquely Japanese music scene, but it doesn't have a specific sound – it's more of a movement.”
- International Music Feed feature "J Rock". International Music Feed Arhivirano s izvorne stranice 12. listopada 2007., pristupljeno 31. srpnja 2007.
- Kristen Sollee (25. lipnja 2005.). Japanese Rock on NPR. The Big Takeover pristupljeno 7. lipnja 2013. “It's a style of dress, there's a lot of costuming and make up and it's uniquely Japanese because it goes back to ancient Japan. Men would often wear women's clothing...”
- Strauss, Neil (18. lipnja 1998.). The Pop Life: End of a Life, End of an Era. The New York Times pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017. “For visual kei bands, outrageous, usually androgynous looks – gobs of makeup, hair dyed and sprayed in ways that made Mohawks look conservative and a small fortune spent on leather and jewellery – were as important as music (or, in many cases after X, more important than music).; To a certain extent, Hide's death means the end of an era, said Steve McClure, Tokyo bureau chief for Billboard, the music-industry magazine. X were the first generation of visual kei bands, but the novelty has worn off. For the next generation of bands, it's like: That's it. The torch has been passed to us.”
- Reesman, Bryan. "Kabuki Rock", Grammy.com, objavljeno 30. studenog 2006. pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017.quote=Josephine Yun, author of the book Jrock, Ink., explains that visual kei originated in the late 1970s and early 1980s as Japan's rock scene began cultivating its own identity. 'It was rock 'n roll, punk rock, glam and metal with a twist – a twist just as angry and rebellious as what came before it – but a poetic one, artistic, with painstaking attention to detail,' Yun explains. She points out that "visual kei" literally translates as "visual style" and spans a wide range of musical genres.; Musically, it can be anything: American rock, British punk, glam, metal, Euro-pop, techno, new wave, electronica," explains Yun. "Visually, the influences are diverse as well: traditional Japanese dress, S&M outfits, costumes made of vinyl, leather, lace, plastic...you name it." Arhivirano s izvorne stranice 2. rujna 2007.
- Suzuki, Chako (siječanj 2007.). Pretty Babies: Japan's Undying Gothic Lolita Phenomenon. fashionlines.com pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017. “Visual Kei is exactly as it sounds: Rock music that incorporates visual effects and elaborate costumes to heighten the experience of the music and the show. Visual Kei started in the 80s and became so popular by the 90s that the nearly all-female fan base started dressing up as their favorite band members (known as 'cosplay') who were often males that wore make-up, crazy hair and dressed androgynously or as females (usually, the more feminine the rocker, the more fans rush to emulate them).”
- Pfeifle 2013, str. 74, 78.
- Heinrich, Sally (2006). Key into Japan, str. 80, Curriculum Corporation ISBN 1-86366-772-5
- Josephine Yun (2005). Jrock, Ink.: A concise report on 40 of the biggest rock acts in Japan, Stone Bridge Press ISBN 1-880656-95-7
- Subha Arulvarathan (15. travnja 2006.). For those about to J-Rock. The Carillon pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017. “Visual kei is a branch of Japanese rock. It has its roots as an underground movement in the late '80s and early '90s and can be considered pastiche, as it aims to experiment with various established genres such as rock, punk, metal, goth and glam in an attempt to create a wholly new sound.”
- Chi Minnie (15. travnja 2006.). X [Japan: Reliving the Height of Japan's Superlative Visual Rock Band]. asiaarts.ucla.edu Arhivirano s izvorne stranice 11. listopada 2007., pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017. “...a fleeting genre known to fans as 'Visual Kei'. Nonetheless, this fusion of metal, punk and gothic aesthetics ignited at least two generations of followers with its shocking visual appeal...; 'Visual Kei' as a genre has more or less expired since the late '90s. The music that derived from the scene has transformed and visual bands have generally subdued their appearance.”
- Dave Gibson (2. studenoga 1998.). Rising Sun. Fort Worth Weekly pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017. “Born of a combination of hard rock and metal, visual rock leans toward a more theatrical presentation emphasizing imagery as much as music. One only needs to watch an X-Japan video to recognize its decadent glam influences, as drummer Yoshiki is often decked out in lace stockings and torn black leather vests. However, the band's androgynous looks can be attributed as much to kayou kyoku (traditional Japanese pop) as to the eccentric costumes of '70s David Bowie and '80s hair bands. It is precisely this hodgepodge of international styles that makes visual rock such a noteworthy new genre.”
- Utz & Lau 2013, str. 250–251.
- Allyson B. Crawford (14. kolovoza 2009.). D'espairsRay Explains Visual Kei Movement, Expressing Emotions. Noisecreep pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017. “Musically speaking, visual kei can do anything.”
- Robson, Daniel (27. travnja 2007.). Shock-rock act Dir En Grey snub cartoons for cred. The Japan Times pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017. “...visual-kei, where peacockish fashion far overshadows any definitive sound.; To be honest, when we first started and we were wearing a lot of makeup on stage and stuff, there were a lot of bands doing that at the time in Japan and people thought it was cool. But not anymore, ha ha. The music was so unique, too – bands like X Japan. At that time, there weren't any two bands that sounded alike; these days everyone sounds exactly the same”
- UnsraW interview. JaME-World.com (27. travnja 2004.) pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017. “[…]Visual kei is not really categorized based on the type of music...”
- Daniel Robson (20. studenog 2010.). Interview with YOSHIKI in Brazil. JaME-World.com pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017. “But visual kei is more like a spirit, it's not a music style or, you know… I think it is a freedom about describing myself, a freedom to express myself, that's what I believe visual kei is.”
- Interview with Angelo. JRock Revolution (24. studenoga 2008.) Arhivirano s izvorne stranice 13. studenoga 2013., pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017. “Well I still don't think "visual kei" is a name for a genre; I see it as a bigger picture, as a part of rock. The visual aspect is something for a band to set themselves apart from others, at least that's what it was ten years ago. Now it's more like people are dressing up a certain way because they want to be "visual kei" or look "visual kei." They are doing it to look like others instead of doing it to look different. This is obviously very different from when we started out more than ten years ago. That's how I see it.”
- Interview with MUCC at RTOC. JaME World (25. srpnja 2008.) pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017.quote=[…]Visual kei is not a style of music, but the whole physical image of the band.
- the Underneath Debuts: Interview Part 1. JRock Revolution (29. veljače 2008.) pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017. “Well, visual kei isn't a genre of music; it's used to categorize the bands that show their unique characteristics with their costumes and makeup, though sometimes the music doesn't necessarily fit the image. Either way, it's used to describe such bands that show their individualism through their appearance.”
- Visual Kei 101 – Segment 2: the GazettE. MTV (12. studenog 2011.) pristupljeno 20. kolovoza 2017. “Visual kei isn't a genre of music.”
|U Wikimedijinu spremniku nalazi se članak na temu: Visual Kei|
|U Wikimedijinu spremniku nalazi se još gradiva na temu: Visual Kei|