Međumorje

Izvor: Wikipedija
Skoči na: orijentacija, traži
Zemljovid jedne od predloženih inačica Međumorske federacije. Svjetlozelena pokaziva ukrajinske i bjeloruske teritorije pod nadzorom SSSR-a.

Međumorje (polj. Międzymorze) je bio projekt kojeg je nakon prvog svjetskog rata promicao Józef Piłsudski, kao federaciju srednjoeuropskih i istočnoeuropskih zemalja koje bi predvodila Poljska [1][2][3][4][5]. U ovu zajednicu se bilo pozvalo baltičke države (Litvu, Latviju i Estonsku), Finsku, Bjelorusiju, Ukrajinu, Slovačku, Mađarsku, Rumunjsku, Kraljevinu SHS i češke zemlje.

Predložena federacija je trebala oponašati Poljsku-Litvu, koja je sezala od Baltičkog do Crnog mora u razdoblju od kraja 16. do kraja 18. stoljeća, inače nastalu ujedinjenjem Kraljevine Poljske i Velike Vojvodine Litve

Neki Litvanci su smatrali ovaj projekt prijetnju njihovoj netom uspostavljenoj neovisnosti, a neki Ukrajinci kao prijetnju njihovim težnjama za osamostaljenjem [6] [7] [8], a suprotstavljala se Rusija i većina zapadnih država osim Francuske. [9] [10]

Međumorje je dopunjavalo ine ambiciozne geopolitičke vizije maršala Piłsudskog - prometejizam, čiji je cilj bio ni više ni manje nego komadanje Ruskog Carstva i oduzimanje odnosno poništavanje svih teritorijalnih osvajanja tog carstva.[11] [12] [13][14].

Unutar dva desetljeća od propasti velikog Piłsudskovog projekta, sve države koje je smatrao kandidatima za članstvom u Međumorskoj federaciji su bile okupirane od strane SSSR-a i/ili Trećeg Reicha.

Izvori[uredi VE | uredi]

Vidi još[uredi VE | uredi]

Izvori[uredi VE | uredi]

  1. Aviel Roshwald, "Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914-1923", Routledge (UK), 2001, ISBN 0-415-17893-2, str. 37
  2. Richard K Debo, Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918-192, McGill-Queen's Press, 1992., ISBN 0-7735-0828-7, str. 59.
  3. James H. Billington, Fire in the Minds of Men, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-7658-0471-9, str. 432
  4. Andrzej Paczkowski, "The Spring Will Be Ours: Poland and the Poles from Occupation to Freedom", Penn State Press, 2003, ISBN 0-271-02308-2, str. 10
  5. David Parker, The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, W. W. Norton & Company, 2001, ISBN 0-393-02025-8, str. 194
  6. Oleksa Pidlutsky, "Figures of the 20th century. Józef Piłsudski: the Chief who Created a State for Himself," Zerkalo Nedeli (the Mirror Weekly), velj. 3-9, 2001., dostupno na internetu na ruskom i na ukrajinskom.
  7. >"The essence of [Józef Piłsudski's "federalist" program] was that after the overthrow of tsardom and the disintegration of the Russian empire, a large, strong and mighty Poland was to be created in Eastern Europe. It would be the reincarnation of the Rzeczpospolita on "federative" principles. It was to include the Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian lands. The leading role, of course, was to be given to the Polish ethnic, political, economic and cultural element. […] As such two influential and popular political doctrines with regard to Ukraine — the "incorporationist" and the "federalist" — even before the creation of Polish statehood, were based on ignoring the right of the Ukrainian people to self-determination and put forward claims to rule over the Ukrainian territories…"
    Oleksandr Derhachov, editor, Ukrainian Statehood in the Twentieth Century: Historical and Political Analysis, Chapter: "Ukraine in Polish concepts of foreign policy," Kiev, 1996, ISBN 966-543-040-8
  8. Roman Szporluk, Imperiia ta natsii, Kiev, Dukh i Litera, 2001., ISBN 966-7888-05-3, section II (ukr.)
  9. Between Imperial Temptation And Anti-Imperial Function In Eastern European Politics: Poland From The Eighteenth To Twenty-First Century. Andrzej Nowak. Pristupljeno 14. rujna 2007.
  10. Alfonsas Eidintas, Vytautas Zalys, Lithuania in European Politics: The Years of the First Republic, 1918-1940, Palgrave, 1999, ISBN 0312224583. Google Print, p.78-81
  11. "Józef Pilsudski, Polish revolutionary and statesman, the first chief of state (1918–22) of the newly independent Poland established in November 1918." (Józef Pilsudski in Encyclopedia Britannica)
    "Released in November 1918, [Piłsudski] returned to Warsaw, assumed command of the Polish armies, and proclaimed an independent Polish republic, which he headed." (Piłsudski, Joseph in Columbia Encyclopedia)
  12. Timothy Snyder, Covert Polish missions across the Soviet Ukrainian border, 1928-1933 (8849812760&id=TQR5YSY-b1QC&pg=PA55&lpg=PA77&sig=Wl4yypcxmLb8qcHAnT2tYmdtPZA str. 55, 8849812760&id=TQR5YSY-b1QC&pg=PA56&lpg=PA77&sig=GbZTRk2b-RS4ZH2t3ACOOQUayJc str. 56, 8849812760&id=TQR5YSY-b1QC&pg=PA57&lpg=PA77&sig=h0O7n586kusn5R1lcEYg6Rr2aeg str. 57, 8849812760&id=TQR5YSY-b1QC&pg=PA77&lpg=PA77&sig=4caX_oMm1TLCtmRTOCFtnf9PvvM str. 58, 8849812760&id=TQR5YSY-b1QC&pg=PA78&lpg=PA77&sig=bRpx03-iHDIZlrYbtuCdPMt0igc str. 59, in Cofini, Silvia Salvatici (a cura di), Rubbettino, 2005).
    Timothy Snyder, Sketches from a Secret War: A Polish Artist's Mission to Liberate Soviet Ukraine, Yale University Press, 2005, ISBN 030010670X, (030010670X&id=LkZlidUKEl8C&pg=PA41&lpg=PA41&sig=JHXCwC4XPWiaH0ZpudmMFGE3-LM str. 41, 030010670X&id=LkZlidUKEl8C&pg=PA42&lpg=PA41&sig=N_AL-wnlV0LiacmtW0hF6XU5N3k str. 42, 030010670X&id=LkZlidUKEl8C&pg=PA43&lpg=PA41&sig=4vb9zLlSd_Wl1BRP2EWcF-3jCvI str. 43)
  13. "Pilsudski hoped to build not merely a Polish nation state but a greater federation of peoples under the aegis of Poland which would replace Russia as the great power of Eastern Europe. Lithuania, Belorussia and Ukraine were all to be included. His plan called for a truncated and vastly reduced Russia, a plan which excluded negotiations prior to military victory."
    Richard K Debo, Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918-1992, 0773508287&id=gQfUB0CXBO4C&pg=PA59&lpg=PA59&vq=excluded+negotiations&dq=0773508287&sig=9NMfQrVB6Hqy6Jow-Ii3G4yld2U Google Print, str. 59, McGill-Queen's Press, 1992, ISBN 0-7735-0828-7.
  14. "Pilsudski's program for a federation of independent states centered on Poland; in opposing the imperial power of both Russia and Germany it was in many ways a throwback to the romantic Mazzinian nationalism of Young Poland in the early nineteenth century."
    James H. Billington, 0765804719&id=a4PRx21WVqMC&dq=0765804719 Fire in the Minds of Men, str. 432, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-7658-0471-9


Vanjske poveznice[uredi VE | uredi]

  • European Review of History 'Intermarium' and 'Wedding to the Sea': Politics of History and Mental Mapping in East Central Europe. Retrieved September 9, 2007